20 Feb

As the COVID-19 pandemic goes on, surgeons and hospitals will have to get used to the changes that have been made. This includes ensuring that the virus doesn't cause too much trouble during surgery and that the environment is safe for patients and doctors.

Hospitals must set up a streamlined process for infected patients who need to be moved to an operating room set aside for COVID-19 (OR). The path should be set up beforehand so that infected people can be escorted logically.

Evaluation before surgery is a key part of safe surgical practice. It measures risk and cuts down on perioperative morbidity, including delayed or canceled surgeries.

Getting the right medical checks before surgery can also shorten a patient's time in the hospital and lower the risk of death. The patient's primary care doctor and, if necessary, a specialist should look at them.

The ASA physical status classification system (Table 2) was made to describe the general health of a patient who will have surgery. It is a useful tool for evaluating a patient before surgery. But it's important to remember that the ASA classification system doesn't tell the whole story about a patient's health.

Also, it shouldn't be used to "clear" patients for a surgery they don't need. It should be a process where the person doing the evaluation and the surgeon work together to determine each patient's level of perioperative risk and make suggestions to lower that risk, if necessary.

A crucial part of hospital care is getting patients to and from their rooms. During this process, all patients must be cleaned and given personal protective equipment (PPE) or masks to keep them safe. When transporting patients who don't have tubes in their throats, they must wear surgical masks, disposable waterproof gloves, and shoe covers.

The linen should be collected while wearing PPE and put in containers that are easy to spot. This will stop the spread of dirty linen, which could hurt COVID-19-positive patients while they are in surgery.

Surgical procedures fix problems with organs, tissues, or other body parts. There are many kinds of surgery, such as neurosurgery (for problems with the brain and spinal cord), thoracic surgery (for problems with the lungs and bronchi), cardiovascular surgery (for heart problems), orthopedic surgery (for problems with the bones and muscles), and gastrointestinal surgery (for problems with the stomach and intestines).

Elective surgery treats long-term conditions that aren't life-threatening but can be helped by a certain procedure. It can be planned or scheduled ahead of time and is done at a time that works for the patient, the hospital, and the staff.

Surgical procedures can be grouped by what part of the body they affect, how invasive they are, what special tools they use, and how long they take. For example, laparoscopic surgery uses small cuts to let miniaturized instruments in, while open surgery uses bigger cuts to get to the area of interest.

Postoperative care includes the care given to patients in the operating room and in the post-anesthesia care unit after surgery. This care aims to avoid complications, help the patient heal, and get them back to good health.

Nurses play an important role in postoperative care by monitoring patients' health, ensuring they have no medical problems, and ensuring they are ready to leave the hospital or be moved to another department for more recovery.

Controlling pain is another important part of care after surgery. Effective pain management is important for a patient's safety and can shorten their time in the hospital, prevent problems, and make it less likely that they will be disabled.

It's also important for nurses to teach patients how to take care of their wounds, how to take their medicine, and what to do if something goes wrong. These tips can help people get better faster and avoid common problems after surgery, like pneumonia.

Surgical patients should be taken to their rooms by coded routes that stay away from public areas where other patients who are not COVID are present. This makes it less likely that they will accidentally touch other patients or staff, which could lead to cross-contamination.

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